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BIO 3020

Pathophysiology

Course Mechanics

1. Pathophysiology vs. Pathology

2. Procedures

a.Text

b.Objectives

c.Tests

d. Grades

I. General Pathology

A. Disease at the Cellular Level

1. Adaptation

a. Atrophy

i.Causes

ii.Result

b. Hypertropy

c. Hyperplasia

i.Types

ii.Atypical Hyperplasia

d. Metaplasia

2. Injury

a. Occurrence

b. Injurious Stimuli

i.Hypoxia

ii.Chemicals

iii.Infectious Agents

iv.Immune Response

v.Nutritional Imbalances

vi.Physical Agents

(a). Temperature Extremes

(b). Pressure Changes

(c). Ionizing Radiation

(d). Mechanical Factors

c. Results of Injury: Accumulations

i.Water

(a). Cellular Swelling

(b). Hydropic Degeneration

ii.Lipids

(a). Mechanism

(b). Common Causes

(c). Fatty Change

iii.Calcium

(a). Mechanism

(b). Types

iv.Hyaline Change

3. Cell Death

a. Necrosis

b. Visible Results

c. Types (Gross)

i.Coagulative

ii.Liquifactive

iii.Caseous

iv. Fat Necrosis

v.Gangrene

4. Apoptosis

a. Meaning

b. Events

5. Somatic Death

a. versus necrosis

b. Events

i.Algor mortis

ii.Livor mortis

iii.Rigor mortis

iv.Postmortem autolysis

B. Fluid Distribution

1. Compartments

a. Intracellular

b. Extracellular

c. Total Water

2. Variations

a. Newborn

b. Effect of Fat

3. Shifts between Compartments

a. Between ICF and ISF

b. Between ISF and Plasma

i.Filtration Pressures

ii.Absorption Pressures

c. ISF Circulation

d. Lymph Flow

4. Edema

a. Definition

b. Mechanisms

i.Increased CHP

ii.Decreased COP

iii.Increased Capillary Permeability

iv.Lymph Flow Blockage

c. Locations

i.Localized

ii.Generalized

iii.In Body Spaces

d. Problems of Edema

i.Distances

ii.Pressure & Blood Flow

iii.Tissue Compression

iv.Blood Volume Loss

C. Immunity

1. Introduction

a. Components of Defense

b. Immune System Cells

i.Locations

ii.Cells

c. Antigens

i.Definition

ii.Characteristics

2. Humoral Response: B-Lymphocytes

a. Activation

b. Product: Immunoglobulins

i.Structure

ii.Direct Actions

iii.Indirect Actions

iv.Classes

3. Cell-Mediated Immunity: T-Lymphocytes

a. Actions & Cell Types

i.Cytotoxicity: Tc

ii.Delayed Hypersensitivity: Td

iii.Control: Th and Ts

D.Inflammation

1. Introduction

2. Acute Response

a. Initiation

b. Events

i.Arteriolar Dilation

ii.Increased CHP

iii.Margination

iv.Endothelial Retraction

v.Cellular Arrival

3. Role of Mast Cells

a. Description of Cells

b. Action

c. Stimuli

d. Stored Chemicals

i.Histamine

ii.Neutrophil Chemotactic Factor

iii.ECF-A

e. New Chemicals

i.Leukotrienes

ii.Prostaglandins

4. Plasma Proteins

a. Arrival

b. Complement System

i.Description

ii.Major Actions

iii.Activation

c. Clotting Proteins

d. Kinin System

5. System Manifestations

a. Fever

b. Leukocytosis

c. Increased Plasma Proteins

6. Chronic Inflammation

a. Description

b. Result

7. Exudation

a. Function

b. Types

i.Serous Exudate

ii.Fibrinous Exudate

iii.Purulent/Suppurative Exudate

iv.Hemorrhagic Exudate

8. Healing

a. Initial Steps

i.Sealing

ii.Clot dissolution

iii.Macrophage Secretions

iv.Granulation Tissue Formation

v.Collagen Organization

vi.Wound Contraction

vii.Epithelialization

b. Maturation

c. Dysfunctional Healing

i. Initial Healing Problems

(a). Big Clots

(b). Adhesions

(c). Inadequate Macrophages

ii.During Reconstruction

(a). Impaired Collagen Synthesis

(b). Excessive Collagen Synthesis

(c). Impaired Epithelialization

(d). Dehiscense

(e). Excessive Contraction

E. Abnormal Immunity

1. Hypersensitivity

a. Introduction

i.Definition

ii.Includes:

(a). Allergies

(b). Autoimmunity

(c). Isoimmunity

b. Types

i.IgE-Mediated (Type I)

(a). Occurrence

(b). Mechanism

(c). Clinical Examples

ii.Tissue-Specific Reactions (Type II)

(a). Action

(b). Destruction Types

iii. Immune Complex Reactions (Type III)

iv.Cell-mediated Reactions (Type IV)

(a). Action

(b). Clinical Examples

c. Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity

i.Allergy

(a). Agent

(b). Examples

(c). Neoantigens

ii.Autoimmunity

(a). Definition

(b). Mechanisms

2. Deficiencies

a. Introduction

i. Definition

ii. Types

iii.Clinical Signs

(a). Normal Infection Rate

(b). Possible Signs

iv.Problems of Deficiency

b. Congental Deficiencies

i. Hypogammaglobulinemia

ii. SCID

iii.Selective IgA Deficiency

c. Acquired Deficiencies

i.Nutritional Deficiencies

(a). Protein/Calorie

(b). Zinc

(c). Vitamins

ii.Iatrogenic Causes

(a). Drugs

(b). Surgery/Anesthesia

iii.Burns

iv.Emotional Stress

v.AIDS

F. Neoplasms

1. Introduction

a. Neoplasm

b. Benign

c. Malignant

2. Nomenclature

a. Naming

b. Carcinoma in situ

3. Malignant Cell Characteristics

a. List

b. Terms

c. Grading

d. Staging

e. Growth Rates

f. Spread

i.Direct Invasion

ii.Lytic Enzymes

iii.Active Movement

iv.Barriers

v.Metastasis

vi.Implantation

4. Clinical Manifestations

a. Pain

b. Cachexia

i.Description

ii.Appetite Changes

iii.Weight Loss

iv.Anemia

c. Leukopenia/Thrombocytopenia

d. Infection

II. Syst

A. Neurologic Dysfunction

1. Consciousness

a. Definition

b. Physical Basis

c. Pathophysiology

i.Agents

ii.Signs

(a). Level of Consciousness

(b). Breathing Patterns

(c). Pupillary Response

(d). Oculomotor Responses

(e). Motor Responses

 

2. Results of Lesions

a. Severe Results

b. Thought Content Alterations

i. Acute

ii. Subacute/Chronic

c. Seizures

i. Definition

ii. Causes

iii. Manifestations

d. Motor Function Alterations

i. Muscle Mass Abnormalities

ii. Muscle Strength Abnormalities

iii. Tone Abnormalities

iv. Postural Abnormalities

v. Abnormal Movements

vi. Hyperkinesia/Dyskinesia

e. Emotional Alterations

f. Unifocal Cortical Function Alterations

i.Agnosias

ii.Dyspraxia

iii.Dysphasia/Aphasia

g. Cerebral Homeostasis Alterations

i.Intracranial Pressure

ii. Cerebral Edema

(a). Vasogenic

(b). Cytotoxic

(c). Ischemic

(d). Interstitial

3. Specific CNS Lesions

a. Trauma

i.Closed-Head Trauma

(a). Injuries

(b). Maximum Effect

(c). Types:

Concussion

Contusions/Lacerations

Extradural Hematoma

Subdural Hematoma

ii. Spinal Cord Trauma

(a). Frequency

(b). Population

(c). Force

(d). Injury

(e). Spinal Shock

b. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

i. Population

ii. Timing

iii. Types

iv. Clinical Information

c. CNS Tumors

i.Introduction

ii. Primary Intracerebral: Gliomas

(a). Glioblastoma

(b). Astrocytoma

(c). Oligodendroglioma

iii. Primary Extracerebral Tumors

(a). Meningioma

(b). Neurilemmoma

d. Infection/Inflammation

i. Meningitis

(a). Types

(b). Manifestations

ii. Encephalitis

e. Degenerative Diseases of CNS

i. Parkinson Disease

(a). Classification

(b). Pathophysiology

(c). Course

ii.Multiple Sclerosis

 

B. Endocrine Disorders

1. SIADH

a. Description

b. Cause

c. Results

 

2. Thyroid Dysfunction

a. Normal Function

b. Hyperthyroidism

i. Results

ii. Cause

c. Hypothyroidism

i. Causes

ii. Manifestations

 

3. Pancreas: Diabetes

a. Introduction

b. Types

i. Type I

(a). Cause

(b). Population

(c). Manifestations

(d). Classic Description

ii.Type II

(a). Cause

(b). Population

(c). Manifestations

iii. Gestational Diabetes

(a). Description

(b). Course

c. Complications

i. Hypoglycemia

ii. Ketoacidosis

iii. Microvascular Changes

iv. Neuropathy

v. Nephropathy

vi. Macrovascular Disease

vii. Combination

 

4. Reproductive System

a. Female

i. Primary Dysmenorrhea

(a). Description

(b). Cause

(c). Other PG Effects

ii.Amenorrhea

(a). Primary

(b). Secondary

iii. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

(a). Description

(b). Manifestations

(c). Complications

iv. Vaginitis

(a). Description

(b). Occurrence

(c). Characterizations

v. Disorders of Pelvic Relaxation

(a). Description

(b). Varieties

vi. Proliferations

(a). Ovarian Cysts

(b). Endometriosis

 

b. Male

i. Urethritis

(a). Description

(b). Common Varieties

(c). Symptoms

ii. Scrotal Disorders

(a). Varicocele

(b). Hydrocele

iii. Prostate Disorders

(a). Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

(b). Prostatitis

 

C. Hematologic Disorders

1. Anemia

a. Definition

b. Classification

c. Manifestations

i. Causes

ii. Symptoms

d. Types

i. Macrocytic-Normochromic

ii. Microcytic-Hypochromic

iii. Normocytic-Normochromic

2. Abnormal WBC Function

a. Infectious Mononucleosis

i.Cause

ii.Appearance

iii.Course

b. Leukemias

i.Meaning

ii.Classification

iii.Examples

iv.Acute Leukemias

v.Chronic Leukemias

c. Multiple Myeloma

i.Description

ii.Manifestations

d. Lymphoma

i.Description

ii.Hodgkin Disease

iii.Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

D. Cardiovascular Disease

1. Arterial Disease

a. Arteriosclerois

i. Meaning

ii. Result

b. Atherosclerosis

i. Meaning

ii. Development

iii. Manifestations

2. Hypertension

a. Meaning

b. Types

c. Primary vs. Secondary

d. Chronic Results

3. Aneurysm

a. Meaning

b. Cause

c. Locations

d. Manifestations

4. Venous Disease

a. Varicose Veins

i. Description

ii. Cause

b. Chronic Venous Insufficiency

i. Meaning

ii. Results

5. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

a. Meaning

b. Prevelance

c. Risks

i. Non-modifiable

ii. Modifiable

(a). Hyperlipidemia

(b). Hypertension

(c). Nicotine

(d). Diabetes

(e). Obesity

6. Myocardial Ischemia

a. Description

b. Result: Angina Pectoris

i. Description

ii. Cause

iii. Timing

iv. Appearance

v. Types

(a). Stable

(b). Unstable

(c). Printzmetal

c. Manifestations

i. Ventricular Gallop

ii. ECG

iii. Angiography

7. Myocardial Infarction (MI)

a. Causes

b. Events

i. First 8-10 Seconds

ii. 30-60 Seconds

iii. 20 Minutes

c. Functional Changes

d. Repair

e. Manifestations

i. Anginal Pain

ii. Sympathetic Stimulation

iii. Fever

iv. Lab Results

v. ECG

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