- Think about a job or task that you've had, that you have been highly motivated to accomplish it. Outline in detail how that motivation occurred.
- Now think about a job that you had little motivation to accomplish. What was lacking? What would it have taken for you to have felt as motivated as in the first example?
- Use Vroom's expectancy theory to examine a motivational challenge that you or someone known to you has faced. Examine the degree to which all three components of Vroom's motivational sequence were present: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence? If any of these were lacking what was the effect? If they had been present, why would they have made a diffference?
- What are some of the things that can be done to enhance expectancy, instrumentality and valence?
- For equity theory, imagine that you have worked very hard on a project and your effort was not acknowledged and the report was simply disregarded. How might this affect your future effort?
- What are some examples of the consequences of equity theory in work situations with which you are familiar?
- Using equity theory, how could you enter a situation as a leader or manager in which equity exchange has been poor, and correct it?
Although Edward Tolman and Kurt Lewin conducted much of the original work on expectancy theory, Victor Vroom is usually credited with having applied the model to workplace motivation. This theory explains how people choose from among various options available, and posits that motivation is dependent on how much we want something and our likehood of getting it.Equity Theory
Effort to Perform Expectancy. This is a person's estimation of the probability that effort will lead to successful performance. This estimation or belief is likewise based on the confidence a person has in his/her own capacities to bring skills to bear and influence outcomes (e.g., self concept, self-efficacy, locus of control). These latter factors are an outgrowth of the nurturing, supporting, and developmental experiences a person has had that leads them to feel confident and competent both personally and in specific situations.
Performance to Outcome Expectancy. This refers to the person's perception of the probability that performance will lead to a specific outcome.
Outcomes and Valences. An outcome is whatever might result from a given performance. The valence of an outcome refers to the relative attractiveness or desirability (value) of that outcome to the individual. For example, extra work load, fatigue, overentended responsibilities may have negative valences, while recognition, promotion, or pay raise may be positive.
Some other links on Expectancy Theory
Outline and some examples of each step in the theoryJ. S. Adams formulated equity theory of job motivation in 1963. It is based on the idea that people will develop comparisons with others ("referents") to help decide what is fair and reasonable in an exchange. We are also influenced by friends, colleagues, family, and other sources of facts and opinions in establishing these benchmarks. Our motivation is then exerted proportional to the degree to which we are receiving reward outputs equivalent to our effortful inputs. When outputs or rewards (salary, bonus, special treatment, etc.) are not equivalent, people become bitter and even disruptive, productivity and quality may be reduced, absenteeism may increase, and personnel may turnover.